2012 KCSE History P 1 -121027MS
2012 KCSE History and Government Rev P 1 -121027MS
History and Government
2012 KCSE History and Government Rev P 1 -121027Q
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
History & Government
SECTION A (25 MARKS)
1. Define the term archaeology. (1 mk)
– It is the study of man’s past through scientific analysis of material remains of his culture.
– Or study of buried remains and ruins f ancient times.
2. Give two steps Kenya has taken to remedy food shortage. (2 mks)
(i) Intensive research has been carried out through KARI to produce high quality seeds and animal breeds.
(ii) Introduction of genetically engineered crops and animals e.g. banana that are resistant to pest and diseases.
(iii) Agricultural training institutions have been established to train agricultural officers, veterinary doctors and horticultural experts e.g. Egerton university UON and JKUAT.
(iv) Teaching of agriculture in the school curriculum.
(v) Government is educating the people about the need for family planning.
(vi) Government has formulated a food security policy to enhance food production.
(vii) Afforestation and reforestation programmes have been established to restore the water catchment areas e.g. Mau complex.
(viii) Irrigation schemes and land reclamation.
Any two well given x 1 = 2 mks)
3. State two functions of the council of elders among the Abagusii. (2 mks)
(i) Solved land disputes
(ii) Discipline law offenders / final court of appeal
(iii) Maintained law & order
(iv) Presided over religious ceremonies
4. Mention one main factor that made it possible for Arab traders to come to the Kenyan coast before the 19th century. (1 mk)
Development in marine technology / knowledge in ship building
5. Give two ways in which an individual’s freedom of expression is limited. (2 mks)
– If one speech incites the public against the state.
– If one discloses confidential information relating to the state.
– Spreading false information / information that will defame / injury the reputation of others falsely.
– One is not supposed to comment on issues before a court of law.
6. State one way in which education has contributed to national integration. (2 mks)
– We learn that we share a common history / national root which unit us.
– Religion, music and drama festival activities in schools /colleges units Kenyans
– The national goals of education are created to enhance nationalism and national cohesion
– The learners are exposed to the same curriculum and examination at the national level e.g. KPE and KCSE.
– Bring teachers and students of different background together
– Teaching of History & CRE enhance national unity.
7. State two challenges that faced the constitution review process in Kenya. (2 mks)
– There was division among the senior members of the coalition when the new president’s failure to honour memorandum of understanding.
– Ideological difference
– Inadequate civic education.
– There was division within parliament over the draft that would be taken to the referendum.
– Inadequate funds – illiteracy and ignorant of the constitution.
8. Identify two provisions of the independent constitution of Kenya. (2 mks)
– Provide for establishment of a federal government
– Coalition govt
– Spelt out the rights and obligations of individual citizens.
– Provides for establishment of National Assembly consisting of senate / house of rep = Bicamera
– Provides for post of prime minister to head gov’t and government general to heat the state.
– Spelt out the powers and responsibilities btw regional governments and Land Board, ECK, Citizen, PSC
9. Give one reason why the colonial government introduced the local government in colonial Kenya. (1 mk)
– To involve local people in the running of the gov’t
– To provide an important link between central government and the rural community.
– To provide a legal forum for the local people to make decisions that touched their day to day affairs.
10. Mention two ways in which the colonial government controlled African migration to the urban centres. (2 mks)
– Putting Africans in reserves
– Introduction of Kipande system / urban pass
– Forced labour
11. State one contribution of African women towards the development of political parties in Kenya before 1939. (1 mk)
– Women raised money for political parties
– Participated in public rallies
– Composed songs in praise of political parties or leaders
– Pressurized their husbands and other relatives to support the political party
– Muthoni Nyanjiru lost her life demanding release of Harry Thuku.
12. Give one contribution of Wangare Maathai to national development in Kenya. (1 mk)
– Founder member of NCWK geared to unify all women’s groups in Kenya.
– Planting of trees – Founded the Green Belt Movement
– M.P for Tetu constituency
– Joined organizations that were demanding for constitutional reforms e.g. LSK, Media and clergy
– Opposed the planned construction of a skyscraper in Uhuru park, saving the recreation park.
– Among founder members of the Release political prisoners (RPP) movement
– Led an advocacy campaign aimed at the cancellation of the heavy debt owed by poor countries in Africa.
– Fought against corruption and grabbing by public land and destruction of the environment.
– Became the pioneer African woman to win Nobel peace prize for her contribution to sustainable development.
– In 2003, she was appointed an Assistant Minister for Environment, Natural Resources and Wildlife.
– Brokered peace btw ODM and PNU and declined to take her post as an assistant minister.
13. State two factors to be considered in changing county boundaries. (2 mks)
– Population density and demographic trends
– Historical and cultural ties
– Physical and human information
– The interest of the communities affected
– The objectives of devolution of government
– The objective changing of the county boundaries.
– Geographical features.
14. Give one main function of correctional service in Kenya. (1 mk)
– For rehabilitation of prisoners through counseling in an attempt to correct their behavior.
15. Mention one social achievement of Nyayoism in Kenya’s development. (1 mks)
– Education has been promoted – 844 system of education
– Medical services have been improved – Nyayo wards, Nyayo philosophy
– Have improved spiritual and social welfare – entertainment of peace, love & unity facilities
– Have looked into the plight of person with disabilities
– Promoted social interaction – through improvement of transport i.e. Nyayo buses
16. State two principles of Land policy in Kenya today. (2 mks)
– Equitable access to land
– Security of land rights
– Sustainable and productive management of land resources
– Transparent and cost effective administration of land.
– Sound conservation and protection of ecologically – sensitive areas.
– Elimination of gender discrimination.
– Encouragement of communities to settle land disputes through local community initiatives consistent with the constitution.
17. (a) Trace the migration pattern of Eastern Bantu into Kenya in the pre-colonial period. (5 mks)
(i) They migrated from the original home in the Congo basin and settled in the Taita hills area around Mt. Kilimanjaro by 2nd C AD.
(ii) Some of them later migrated northwards along the coast to Shungwaya in present day Somalia. These were the ancestorsof Miji Kenda, Pokomo and Taita.
(iii) The ancestors of the Mt. Kenya groups moved into the interior along and River Tana.
(iv) From about 1450 the communities which had settled in Shungwaya were forced to disperse from the area due to external pressure from the cushites.
(v) The ancestors of the Miji Kenda and Taita moved south and established their settlement along the coast while those of the Pokomo migrated into the interior and settled along river Tana while the Ameru migrated to the slope of Mt. Kenya.
(vi) Akamba, Agikuyu and Aembu = Mt Kilimajaro / Taita hills moved inwards to Mbooni – Chyulu
(b) Describe the political organization of the Miji Kenda in the pre-colonial period.
(i) The Miji Kenda were organized into between 4/6 clans with many sub clans. / smallest political unit was family.
(ii) Each clan lived in protected villages known as kayas.
(iii) Young men became members of age-sets after going through circumcision and formed warrior class.
(iv) Senior age-set members made up the colonies of elders known as Kambi with many roles.
(v) Religious leaders also played a major role in political activities of the community.
(vi) The council was responsible for the administration of a clan.
(vii) Clan members treated one another as brothers and helped one another in times of need.
Any 5 well described x 2 = 10 mks
18. (a) Give three reasons for Wanga collaboration. (3 mks)
(i) Nabongo Mumia wanted to be made the paramount chief not only for the Wanga but the entire region, thus consolidating his power in the whole of western Kenya.
(ii) Mumia hoped to secure British protection and assistance against his traditional enemies the Luo of Ugenya, Bukusu and Nandi.
(iii) He wanted to acquire modern firearms for his army.
(iv) He wanted to take advantage of the British western civilization e.g. education and religion.
(v) He knew the British would make western Kenya their sphere of influence hence chose to be their ally than foe.
(vi) He wanted help to achieve territorial expansionist Buholo, South Bukusu, Kabra Marama Butsotse, Samia and Kimilili to lay claim over this areas.
(vii) He realized the futility of resistance, as his community was to small and ill equipped to face the British. He also had witnessed to what happened to the resisting communities.
(b) Explain six results of the Wanga collaboration with the British. (12 mks)
(i) He was made the paramount chief (Mumia). He ruled as British paramount chief up to 1926.
(ii) Mumia’s warriors actively became agents of British colonialism and were intentionally used to perpetuate. British rule by subduing the Luo, Bukusu and Nandi in west.
(iii) Wanga’s independence was compromised after British declared Kenya its protectorate.
(iv) Mumia and his people acquired some material benefits through trade, western education and religion.
(v) Wangas were able to expand with the British support e.g. Bunyala, Samia and Busoga.
(vi) Elureko became his headquarters in British terriroty of western Kenya up to 1920 before it was shifted to Kakamega.
(vii) Mumia readily provide d the colomnial authorities with vital information over the appointment of chiefs and fheadmen.
(viii) Wanga agents were used to rule over western Kenya indirectly. Mumia’s half brother Murunga was appointed chief of Idakho and Isukha.
(ix) His cooperation with the Brisith intensified enmity and hostility between his people and other Abaluyha subsection.
(x) Nabong enjoyed lucrative trade by having Mumia serve as a major terminus for trade caravans to Uganda. He acquired goods like fire arms and exotic commodities.
(xi) Mumia became centre of colonial administration in western Kenya up to 1920.
19. (a) State three ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African
farming. (3 mks)
(i) Africans were dispossessed of their land and denied the right to own land in the reserves. The best available land was carved out for construction of the railway affecting the Agikuyu, the Nandi and the Maasai.
(ii) Africans were pushed into reserves specially allotted to them, characterized by overcrowding, overstocking resulting ion poor agricultural potential.
(iii) Africans who settled in European farms became squatters.
(iv) Denied them manpower in the farms (African farms)
(v) Destocking and restricting African pastorialism.
(b) Explain six roles of political parties in the struggle for independence between 1945 –
1963. (12 mks)
(i) Mobilized Africans against colonial demonation / united them in the nationalist struggle.
(ii) Provided political voice to the Africans in Kenya.
(iii) Participate in constitutional talk in London during the Lancaster conference – 2nd conf drafted the ind constitution.
(iv) Took part in the 1961 and 1963 elections.
(v) Acted as training ground for political leaders who took over the leadership of the country after independence.
(vi) Provided political education to Africans.
20. (a) Examine factors that have hampered Kenya’s industrial progress since
independence. (7 mks)
(i) Multinational corporation’s repatriate capital to their countries.
(ii) Many large industries use imported materials hence undermine exploitation of local resources.
(iii) Majority of big industries are located in urban centres, hence the ripple effect of industrialization is not felt in the rural areas.
(iv) Mismanagement of major industries.
(v) Inadequate finance to support entrepreneurs.
(vi) Competition from the more industrialized countries which sells more cheap goods.
(vii) Domestic markets in Kenya is small – poverty.
(viii) Low level of technology.
(ix) Inadequate strategic raw materials.
(x) Underdeveloped transport and comm.
(xi) Underdeveloped sources of energy Any 7 well outline x 1 = 7 mks
(b) Describe the political developments in Kenya since independence. (8 mks)
– Kenya attained independence on 12th Dec 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister.
– In 1964 Kenya adopted a republic constitution with Kenyatta president and Jaramogo Odinga vice president
– 1964 KADU and APP was disbanded and Kenya become a defacto one party state, this enhance national integration.
– 1966. There was creation of eight KANU vice president to represent provinces and Nairobi by the Limuru conference.
– 1966 formation of KPU and the little general election for those who defected from the ruling party to KPU, had to seek fresh mandate.
– 1966 Joseph Murumbi become the vice president – 2nd
– 1975 there was the change the constitution clamour by GEMA politicians to bar vice president from assuming office for 90 days but was unsuccessful.
– 1978 Kenyatta died and there was peaceful transition of power to Daniel Moi for 90 days upon which elections were done and Moi was elected unopposed.
– 1978 Moi disbanded all tribal and welfare organization for indulging in politics.
– 1982 Kenya become a one party state by law / (dejure)
– 1982 the loyal army officers thwarted the effort of the Kenya Air Force to overthrow the government
– 1983 – president Daniel Moi forgave Charles Njonjo, who had been found guilty of trying to overthrow the government – the traitors affair.
– 1990 KANU delegates conference held in Nairobi agreed to discard the Mlolongo voting mtd.
– 1991 repeal of section 2A of the constitution which reverted Kenya to multiparty state.
– There has been enhanced status of women … to cabinet positions and as Ps
– 2005 Kenya conducted a referendum on the constitutional review process.
– 2001 establishment of the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission to facilitate the constitution review process.
– 2003 Daniel Moi stepped down as president of Kenya and peacefully handed over power to Mwai Kibaki.
– 2008 formation of a coalition government after the disputed 2007 general election and signing of the National Accord leading to power sharing.
– 2010 promulgation of the new constitution.
21. (a) State three functions of the senate in Kenya. (3 mks)
– Represent the countries and protect the interests of the countries and their governments.
– Participate in law making process of parliament
– Determine allocation of national revenue and exercise oversight over national revenue.
– Exercise oversight if state officers by considering and determining any resolution to remove the president or deputy president.
(b) Explain six stages of the Law making process in Kenya. (12 mks)
(i) The drafting of the Bill stage at the A.G chambers.
(ii) The first reading: where the bill is introduced to the National Assembly.
(iii) The second Reading – The bill is discussed through an open debate, bill discussed in detail and amendment proposed.
(iv) The committee stage – The bill is referred to the committee of the whole house or a small select committee.
(v) Report stage – The chairman of the committee make a report on behalf of the committee members of the national assembly confirm whether or not their proposals have been taken into account.
(vi) Third reading: limited opportunity for debate and further amendments to be made.
(vii) President Assent.
The bill becomes an act of parliament.
Any 6 in order x 2 = 12 mks
22. (a) State the composition of the organs of national security in Kenya. (3 mks)
(i) The Kenya defence forces.
(ii) The National intelligence services.
(iii) The National police service.
(b) Explain six challenges facing the National Intelligence Service in Kenya. (12 mks)
(i) Lack of trust from Kenya citizens makes them reluctant to provide information to NIS.
(ii) Concern has been raised over the financial credibility and political independence of the NIS.
(iii) Lack of clear distinction between accountability and necessary secrecy has caused alot of tension.
(iv) The growing volume and complexity of communication.
(v) It is threatened by internal and external forces.
(vi) The complexity of the task requires continuous capacity measures that remain a challenge.
(vii) Political interference
(viii) Limited financial and human resources.
(ix) Due to the covert nature of the intelligence operations all over the world, Kenyans have no idea of the operations of the NIS.
(x) Lack of powers to follow up on implementation of the advice given.
23. (a) Give five objectives of devolution of government. (5 mks)
(i) To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
(ii) To foster national unity by recognizing diversity.
(iii) To give powers of self-governance to the people and promote the participation of the people in making decisions.
(iv) To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs.
(v) To protect and promote the interests and rights, of minorities and marginalized communities.
(vi) To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources.
(vii) To facilitate the decentralization of state organs and their functions and services.
(viii) To have checks and balances and the separation of powers.
(ix) To promote social and economic development.
(b) Explain five main sources of revenue for county governments in Kenya. (10 mks)
(i) Equitably shared national revenue.
(ii) Own revenues raised by respective counties.
(iii) Conditional and unconditional grants from the national government.
(vii) Loans from capital markets.
(v) Grants from local and external institutions.