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AgricultureAGR140512MS

AGR140512MS
AGRICULTURE PAPER 1 (THEORY)
TIME: 2 HOURS1
MARKING SCHEME
QUESTION 1
– Heavy capital investment
– High skills and level of management
– Low operational costs / low cost of production
– Large tracts of land
4 x ½ = 2mks
Question 2
– Slashing
– Burning
– Tree felling
– Use of herbicides / weed killers
– Chaining
– Stumping 4 x ½ = 2mks

Question 3
In order to show what there is and what is not there in the farm / assist in detecting stolen items 1×1 = imk

Question 4
Sucking sap
Spreading / transmitting viral disease 2 x ½ = 1mk

Question 5
– To control weeds
– Partial recycling of lost nutrients
– To control build up of soil pests and diseases
– To correct unfavourable rough tilth for planting
– To mix soil with trush for rotting 4 x ½ = 2mks

Question 6
At 30-45cm maize has well developed roots to absorb dissolved nitrogeneous fertilizer or it has developed roots for absorption of foliar feeds
Maize is growing faster and requires alot of nitrogen. 2 x 1 = 2mks

Question 7
– Leaching
– Erosion
– Water borne diseases
– Breeding sites for mosquitoes
– Floods
– Corrosion of farm machinery
– Carrying away of farm structures
– Landslides
OWTTE 4×1/2=2 marks

Question 8
– Requires skills to apply
– Poisonous
– Pollutants of air,soil
– Have undesirable residual effect
4x ½ = marks
Question 9
– Spraying
– Pruning
– Training
– Grafting
– Shading
– Effecting barriers
4×1/2=marks
Question 10
– Poor soil fertility/ /excess leaching
– Loss of rainfall/unreliable/too much
– Poor soil PH/inappropriate
– Pest attack
– Poor weed control
– Too high/ too low temperature
– Extreme light intensity
– Inappropriate topography
OWTTE 4x ½ marks
Question 11
– Reduce amount of shade gradually
– Reduce watering gradually/reduce amount gradually

Question 12
– Detaching soil particles on the surface
– Transfering soil particles in splashes
Question 13
– Prevent loss of plant nutrients from the soil
– Maintain the soil structure 1×1=1mk

Question 14
– Soil type
– Soil moisture content
– Size of the seed
– Type of germination
4 x ½ = 2mks
Question 15
– Shifting cultivation
– Traditions / inheritance of land from parents / population pressure / Buying scattered land / Accumulation of land by money lenders from farmers. 4 x ½ = 2marks

Question 16
– Organic materials used improve soil structure
– Environmental friendly
– Enhances soil water infiltration and retention
– Provides food for micro-organisms useful in the soil. 2 x ½ = 1mk

Question 17
– Improves soil structure
– Maximum utilization of nutrients
– Control soil born pests and diseases
– To control weeds
– To improve soil fertility
– To control soil erosion
SECTION B (20 Marks)

Question 18.
(i) X- Double thorn / oxygonum sinuatim 1 x ½ = ½ mk
Y- Thorn apple / Datura stramonium
B rules to apply 1 x ½ = ½ mk

(ii) X- can be used as a feed for livestock
Y- Poisonous to livestock
– Produces repellants (alkaloid smell) 2 x ½ =1mk

(iii) – Paraguar
– Glyphosates
– Dalapon 2 x ½ = 1mk

Question 19
(a) Clamp silo
(b) Be from high quality
– Have a PH of 4.2 or below
– Have 5-9% lactic Acid
– Be free from moulds / bad odour such as ammonia and butyric acid
– Be greenish to yellow colour / not brown
– Have a fine texture OWTTE 2 x 1 = 2mks

(c) Surface spoilage
– Upto 20% loss due to exposure with soil
– Seepage losses
o Occurs if silo is not water tight
– Gaseous losses
o Respiration resulting to loss of CHO inform of Co2 3×1= 3mks

Question 20
(i) Maize 2000 bags x 750 = 1,500,000
Wheat 1400 bags x 900 = 1,260,000
Barley 1500bags x 1200 = 1,800,000

Opportunity cost = Kshs. 1,500,000 1 ½ mks

(ii) Maize is the returns from the next best alternative forgone. 1 x ½ = ½ mk

Question 21
(a) American bollworm
(b) Bores roundholes on fruit walls
Presence of refuse from feeding of the worm on the fruit surface. 2 x 1 = 2mks
(c) Crop rotation
Plant resistant varieties
Close season 2 x 1 = 2 mks

(d) Tomato aphids
Tobacco white fly
Leaf hoppers / miners 2 x 1 = 2mks
Question 22
– Cut canes when mature as indicated by uniformity in sugar
– Cut canes near the ground to avoid loss of yield
– Use sterilised equipment / cutter
– Strip –off leaves from the stem
– Deliver sugarcane to the factory within 4 hours 4 x ½ = 2mks

SECTION C (40 marks)

Question 23
(a) Uses of farm records
– Helps a farmer in planning and making decisions
– Provide information for income and assessment
– Provide information to help determine credit worthiness
– Helps to determine the value of the farm / show assets and liabilities
– Help to compare performance of enterprises between seasons
– Helps to solve disputes
– Provides a history of the farm
– For determining profits and losses
– Helps to share profits and losses and bonuses
– Provide surface in insurance claims
– Provide labour information by calculating terminal benefits 6 x 1 = 6mks

(b) Many agricultural products are perishable /
– Farmers incur losses of products
– Bulkiness hence occupy large space / expensive
– Transportation – due to poor infrastructure
– Seasonality of produce – creates storage problems especially during the peak season
– Difficult storage – due to lack of storage facilities which is costly
– Due to changes in market demands, there is time lag between decisions to produce
– Changes in supply- cheap imports causing price fluctuations
– Lack of perfect information of market situations making selling difficult
– Delayed payments due to poor marketing organizations
· Any 6 Problem ½ @ = 3
· Explanation ½ @ 6
· Total = 9mks

(c) Itinerant traders or middlemen buy goods from farmers
– Processors or manufacturing companies buy produce to process
– Wholesalers – buy produce in bulk from farmers or processors and resale
– Brokers or commission agents act on behalf of other business for a fee or commission
– Co-operative societies and unions buy farmers produce locally
– Marketing boards – promote production and marketing of agricultural produce
– Retailers – sell to consumers in small quantities.

Question 24
(a) Breaking seed dormancy
– Burning the seed coat
– Scarification / physical breaking of seed coat
– Seeds subjected to heat to destroy hard coat
– Seed-dressing –coating seeds with chemicals
– Seed inoculation
– Coating leguminous seeds with rhizobium
– Chitting – inducing potato tubers to shoot and root. 8×1=8mks

(b) Soil fertility – fertile soils with support closely spaced crops
– Size of the plant – crops forming canopies require wide spacing
– Moisture- high soil moisture encourages close spacing
– Mechanization- mechanical operations require wider spacing
– Pests and disease control- good spacing prevents quick spread of diseases
– Purpose of the crop – forage crops are closely spaced than food crops 8 x 1=8mks

(c) Climatic conditions – prevailing rainfall patterns determines the crops to grow
– Market demand – early planning enables crops to mature early before the market is flooded
– Weed control- plant early before weeds germinate
– Pests and disease control- plant crops early for them to outgrow stages when adversely affected by pests.
4 x 1 = 4mks

Question 25
(a) Harrow land to a fine tilth during the dry season clean the seedbed / weed free
– Firm the seedbed using rollers before and after planting
– Select desirable seeds for the area
– Plant seeds at the onset of the rains by drilling
– Apply phosphatic fertiliser SSP, DSP, TSP
– Drug a twig to lightly cover the seeds.
– Control weeds by uprooting / herbicides
– Apply nitrogenous fertiliser in splits
– Cut back / practise light grazing to encourage growth
– Avoid grazing when pasture is too young
– Use certified seeds

(b) More palatable than pure grain
– Farmers has security against total loss due attack by pests or diseases
– Mixed pasture yields are higher per unit area of land
– More nutritious / higher nutritive value
– Makes maximum use of nutrients
– Better weed control effect
– Reduces soil erosion because of good coverage
– Increases soil fertility
– Economy in the use of fertilizers
– Better distribution of growth (i.e. a mixture of early and late maturing species.)
10 x 1 = 10 mks

 

4 responses to “AgricultureAGR140512MS

  1. Kraizie

    February 16, 2015 at 2:22 pm

    so cool

     
  2. Amon

    April 25, 2015 at 7:27 am

    its so good.We need more and more.Thank you!!

     
    • revpalace

      May 1, 2015 at 10:08 am

      That shall exactly be done!

       

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