1. Name one prehistoric site in Kenya. (1mk)
v Rusinga island
v Fort Ternan
v Kariandusi
v Gambles cave
v Olorgesailie
v Kobi Fora
v Hyrax Hill
v Njoro River Cave
1 x 1 = 1 mark
2. Apart from the Nandi, name any other community in Kenya that resisted the British occupation. (1mk)
v Agiriama
v Bukusu
v somali
1 x 1 = 1 mark
3. Identify any Portuguese who led in the expeditions of conquest in East Africa. (1mk)
v Vasco Da Gama
v Ruy Laurenco Ravasco
v Fransico D. Almeida
v Tristao da Cunha
1 x 1 = 1 mark
4. Name two missionaries who worked in Kenya by the 19th century (2mks)
v Johann Krapf
v Johann Rebmann
v Jacob Erhardt
2 x 1 = 2 marks
5. Mention one method used to occupy Kenya by the British during the colonial period. (1mk)
v Signing of treaties
v Collaboration
v Military expedition
v Operational bases
1 x 1 = 1 mark
6. Give one term of the second Anglo-German Treaty (Heligoland Treaty) of 1890. (1mk)
v Uganda was recognized as an area within the British sphere of interest.
v Germany abandoned her claim over Witu in exchange of the island of Heligoland.
v The British laid claim over Kenya and the sultan’s dominions.
v Germany acquired a strip on Lake Tanganyika and also bought the coastal strip from the sultan of Zanzibar.
v The Heligoland completed the process of scramble and partition of East Africa.
1 x 1 = 1 mark
7. What was the duty of the colonial secretary during the colonial period? (1mk)

v He was the overall co-ordinator of the colonial policies. He was based in London.
1 x 1 = 1 mark
8. Give one reason why the British used indirect rule in Kenya. (1mk)

v Inadequate personnel
v Insufficient funds
v Fear of resistance by African communities
1 x 1 = 1 mark

9. Name the settler farmer who introduced wheat in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
v Lord Dalamere
1 x 1 = 1 mark
10. State two contributions of Ronald Ngala in Kenya. (2mks)
v Founder of KADU
v Led KADU during the second Lancaster House Conference of 1962
v At independence he became an MP and leader of opposition.
v He headed various ministries
v In 1957 he was elected to LEGCO
v He was a member of various political parties e.g. Coast African Association.
v He formed government after 1961 election when KANU declined unless Kenyatta was released.
2 x 1 = 2 marks
11. State two economic challenges that Kenya experienced after independence. (2mks)

v Landlessness
v Mass unemployment
v Inadequate manpower/skilled to run the country.
v Investment stagnated due to transfer of capital from Kenya by emigrating white settlers.
2 x 1 = 2 marks

12. State two factors to consider when forming a constitution. (2mks)
v Historical background of a country.
v Geographical factors
v Religious beliefs of the people
v Racial composition.
2 x 1 = 2 marks
13. Name one way of becoming a Kenyan citizen. (1mk)

v Birth
v Registration
v Naturalization
1 x 1 =1mk
14. Name two types of local authorities in Kenya. (2mks)
v City councils
v Municipal councils
v County councils
v Town councils
v Urban and area council
2 x 1 = 2 marks

15. State two types of expenditures in Kenya. (2mks)
v Capital expenditure
v Recurrent expenditure
2 x 1 = 2 marks

16. Apart from the constitution, name any other two sources of Kenyan laws. (2mks)
v African customs/customary laws
v Religion
v British common law
v Acts of parliament
v Judicial precedents
2 x 1 = 2 marks

17. Give two functions of the sergeant at arms. (2mks)
v Maintain discipline within and around parliament building
v Custodian of the mace
v Enforces all orders made by the speaker
v Responsible for the maintenance of parliament building.
2 x 1 = 2 marks

18. (a) Give three reasons for the migrations of the Borana from Ethiopia to
Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (3mks)
v Search for land for cultivation
v Drought and famine
v Increased human population
v Outbreak of diseases and epidemics
v Attacked by hostile neighbours
v Love for adventure
v Family and clan quarrels
v Floods that caused destruction to settlement

(b) Describe the political organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period. (12mks)

v The society was divided into clans that were related through a common descent.
v The society was divided into two halves known as moieties. The moiety was divided into sub-moieties which were then divided into clans.
v Each moiety was ruled by a hereditary leader known as Kallu. His duties included being a sacred ritual leader and setting disputes between clans. He also elected age-set leaders.
v The Kallu ruled with the help of the council of elders.
v The clans were important in the political organization. They lived in camps under a council of elders whose duties were
o Made and enforced laws.
o Dealt with cases of ownership of grazing land and wells.
o Solved marriage disputes, murder, theft and rape cases.
o Presided over religious ceremonies
v Boys who were circumcised together formed an age-set Hariyya). They formed the bases of military organization. They defended the community and organized raids.
6 x 2 = 12mks
19. (a) Give five problems faced by the Omani rulers in East Africa. (5mks)
v The Omani rulers were harsh and ruthless and were thus hated by the coastal people.
v There was constant rebellion from the coastal towns.
v Civil wars back in their country
v Threats of Persian invasion to their countries.
v Were attacked by sea pirates along the Indian Ocean.

5 x 1 = 5mks
(b) Explain five effects of long distance trade in Kenya during the 19th century. (10mks)
v Development of towns e.g. Mombasa, Lamu, Kilwa, Pembe.
v Intensification of both local and regional trade as new goods were introduced.
v Emergence of a class of wealthy African e.g. Kivoi of Ukambani, Ngonyo of Mjikenda, Msiri of nyungu ya mawe.
v Introduction of foreign goods e.g. beads, cloth and plates.
v New crops were introduced e.g. bananas, rice, sugarcane and mangoes.
v Introduction of Islam and Islamic culture by the Arabs and Waswahili traders.
v Led to the development of plantation agriculture in Malindi and Mombasa.
v There was development of trade-routes and market centres in the region.
v Development of a money economy that replaced barter trade.
v It led to colonization of East Africa since it gave reports about the coast its strategic and commercial ability.

5 x 2 = 10mks

20. (a) Identify three recommendations of Fraser Commission Report of 1908 in education.
v Provision of technical education to Africans.
v Maintenance of racially segregated schools.
v More co-operations between the colonial administration and the Christian missionaries.
v Appeals for grants in aid for mission schools

3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) Explain six effects of the construction of Kenya-Uganda Railway. (12mks)
v Many Asians (Indian coolies) came to Kenya as railway builders but later embarked on commercial activities i.e. setting up of shops.
v It led to the mushrooming of urban centres either as railway stations, supply centres etc.
v It led to settlement of many Europeans in the interior who developed large scale plantation agriculture on the white highlands.
v The construction of the railway was a major boost to job creation for many Africans and Indians.
v Christian missionaries were able to move to the interior where they established mission stations, churches and schools.
v During the time of famine e.g. 1899in Kambaland food and other supplies were easily transported.
v Rapid movement of troops and administrators promoted British administration and opened up the interior.
v The railway speeded up the development of Agriculture and industry i.e. agro- based industries.
v The railway became a major revenue resource for colonial authorities.
v There was massive land alienation with some communities being pushed to the reserves.
v It facilitated cultural and social interaction among different communities.
v It led to rural urban migration
v It led to settlement of Indians in Kenya.
v Other forms of transport and communication along the railway i.e. roads, telecommunications developed and expanded.

6 x 2 = 12 mks

21. (a) Identify five problems faced by independent churches and schools during the colonial period in Kenya. (5mks)
v Experienced constant harassment from missionaries and colonial government.
v Many schools and churches lacked trained personnel who could run the institution efficiently.
v Perpetual shortage of funds affected churches and schools.
v There were many leadership squabbles
v Mission churches and schools competed with independent churches and schools for followers.

5 x 1 = 5mks

(b)What are the factors that led to the formation of political organizations after 1945 in
Kenya. (10mks)
v By 1945 many Africans had acquired western education that enabled them to articulate their grievances forcefully.
v The experiences of the World War II ex-soldiers made the soldiers to discover that the whites were not superior to them. The colonial government also failed to fulfill their promise of land and employment this provoked bitterness towards colonial administration.
v The granting of independence to India and Pakistan aroused African confidence to agitate for independence.
v The Atlantic charter signed between Britain and U.S.A. declared that after the war ended, all subjects should enjoy right to self determination.
v The labour party that came to power in Britain after World War II was pro-workers who favoured decolonization.
v The emergence of U.S.A. and former Soviet Union as the two super-powers pressed for decolonization.
v The World War II drained the treasuries of European countries their tax payers were reluctant to support the rising expenditure in the colonies.
v The United Nations formed after World War II in 1945 advocated for granting of political freedom to all subject peoples.
v The spirit of Pan-Africanism contributed to the new demands for political independent and self determination.

5 x 2 = 10mks

22. (a) Identify five factors that undermine free and fair elections in Kenya. (5mks)
v Inadequate civic education, voters are not sensitized on the right to vote for good leaders.
v Illiteracy among citizens, some Kenyans are illiterate making it hard to mark ballot papers properly.
v Violence, chaos hinders voting, voters have no access to voting halls.
v Rigging
v bribes
5 x 1 = 5mks

(b) Explain five roles of the Electoral Commission of Kenya. (10mks)
v Divides constituencies, marks the boundaries and names the constituencies.
v Review electoral areas, i.e. boundaries, numbers and names.
v Register voters, maintains and revises the register of voters.
v Prepares and distributes nomination papers, ballot papers, boxes
v Supervises the casting and counting of votes.
v Appoints and pays the staff at the voting.
v Responsible for general direction, supervision of administrative conduct of presidential, national and local government elections.
v Promote voter education all over Kenya.
v Promote free and fair elections.
v Receives money deposited by aspiring parliamentary candidates.
v Conduct language proficiency tests for candidates.
v Announces the dates of elections or by elections provides security throughout the election exercises.
v Announces election results.
5 x 2 = 10mks

23. (a) Identify three basic aims of prison sentence. (3mks)
v Rehabilitating people
v Punishing offenders.
v Deterring those who might be thinking of committing offences.
v Removing temporary those who threaten societal peace.
v Justice/revenge/retribution.

3 x 1 = 3mks

(b) What measures have been taken by the government to improve the conditions of prisons in
Kenya? (12mks)
v Provision of better food, improved medical services, sufficient clothing and beddings.
v Petty offenders are subjected to extra-mural penal employment to ease congestion in prisons.
v Efficient transport as new vehicles, have been purchased to transport prisoners to court.
v Release of death-row inmates who have been in jail for over ten years awaiting execution.
v Direct involvement of the government in prison affairs e.g. visiting prisons and listening to their needs.
v Introduction of recreations facilities in prisons e.g. radio and television.
v Improving the living conditions of prison warders e.g. building better houses and increasing their salaries.
v The department is training personnel to rehabilitate drug and alcohol addicts.
v Streamlining of hearing of cases with a view to keeping prisoners in remand for a short period.
v Release of prisoners who were serving short sentences aimed at reducing congestion.
6 x 2 = 12mks

24. (a) State five ways in which conflicts can be prevented in Kenya. (5mks)

v Able leadership
v Respecting other peoples rights and freedoms
v Having a good constitution
v Respecting the principles of democracy
v Having proper electoral process
v Equitable/fair distribution of resources.
v Maintenance of law and order
v Having a responsible media.
5 x 1 = 5mks

(b) Explain the contributions of Harambee to the National Development in Kenya. (10mks)

v It has promoted the spirit of co-operation and understanding among various communities in Kenya. It brings different people together and promotes unity.
v Development of education in Kenya has been helped by Harambee.
v It has promoted a sense of dignity and communal belonging and development of co-operative movement in Kenya.
v It has promoted a sense of mutual responsibility, spirit of working together and self reliance and reduced dependence on foreign aid.
v Has promoted democracy individuals are encouraged to participate in national development.
v It has supplemented government efforts in funding development projects.
v It has helped in redistribution of wealth between the rich and the poor.

5 x 2 =10mks


16 responses to “HIS140614-1MS

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