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HIS140614-2MS

HIS140614-2MS
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2
TIME: 2 ½ HOURS

MARKING SCHEME

1. Name one electronic source of history and government. (1mk)
v Micro films
v Radio
v Television, film videos
v Data banks and data basis
1 x 1 = 1mk
2. State two processes through which evolution took place according to Charles Darwin.
(2mks)
v Mutation
v Adaptation
v Natural selection
v Isolation.
2 x 1 = 2mks
3. Identify two uses of the wheel among the Sumerians. (2mks)
v Wheels were fixed on the carts which were pushed by animals and people
v The wheels were used as war chariots
v The wheel was used to make pots
v It was used on shadoof
2 x 1 = 2mks
4. Name two advantages of metal tools over stone tools. (2mks)
v They don’t break easily
v They have sharp cutting edge which can be sharpened easily
v Metal scraps can be recycled
v The tools are light to work with
v Molten metal can be cast into various shapes.
2 x 1 = 2mks
5. State one theory that explains the spread of iron working in Africa during the 15th century.
(1mk)
v One area theory: iron came from outside Africa and spread along river Nile to Meroe West Africa and South Africa.
v Independent source. Africans may have learnt iron smelting through experience of pot making.

1 x 1 = 1mk
6. Give one role of omanhenes amongst the Asante in the 19th century. (1mk)
v They were the heads of Amatoo states.
v They gave rights of declaring war on other communities.
v They recognized the rights of the Asantehene to improve national rules or taxes.
v They attended the annual Odwira festival to pledge loyalty to the Asante.
v They were to grant their own subjects to appeal to the high court set up for the union in the capital.
2 x 1 = 2mks
7. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European possessions in Africa. (2mks)
v Imperial British East Africa company
v Germany East Africa company
v British South Africa company
v Royal Niger company
2 x 1 = 2mks

8. Name one strategic factor which led to the scramble for colonies in Africa in the 19th century.
(1mk)
v Egyptian question
v Congo crisis/French activities in the Congo
v King Leopard II of Belgium ambitious activities
v East Africa coast due to its deep harbours.

1 x 1 = 1mk
9. Name one area in Senegal where the policy of assimilation was successful. (1mk)
v Dakar
v St. Louis
v Govee
v Refisque
1 x 1 =1mk
10. Identify two political developments in South Africa between 1990 to 1994. (2mks)
v 1990 – Fredrick de Klerk lifted the ban on all anti-apartheid movement including A.N.C.
v 1990 – Nelson Mandela was released after 27 years in prison
v 1991 – Some of the most oppressive racist laws were repealed including the international organization of 1960 that had been used to ban ANC and PAC.
v 1994 All race elections were held in April 1994 ANC won by a landslide thereby opening a new era in African history.
v Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the president of South Africa on 10th May 1994
v The sanctions placed against the apartheid regime were lifted and the country reinstated as a rightful member of the commonwealth U.N.O. and organization of unity.
1 x1 =1mk

11. Give the reason why the United States of America joined the allied powers in the Second World War. (1mk)
v Japan attacked an American vessel at pearl harbour in Hawaii.
1 x 1 = 1mk
12. State two objectives of the non-aligned movement. (2mks)
v To safe guard sovereignty of member states
v To push for independence of 3rd world countries.
v To work towards disarmament of super powers
v To discourage military alliance, promoted by the super power.
v To promote active participation by 3rd world countries in U.N.O. where they could speak in one voice.
v Promote economic development among member states and discourage neo-colonialism
v Promote neutrality among member states on world affairs.
v To fight racism in he world.
v To pursue an independent policy based on co-existence.
v To establish a new economic order
v To improve agriculture and increase food production and stability of prices.

2 x 1 = 2mks
13. Name the International organization formed after the First World War. (1mk)
v League of nations.
14. Name two organs of the East African Community established in 2001. (2mks)
v The summit
v The council of ministers
v Co-ordinating committee
v Electoral committee
v East African court of justice.
v East Africa legislative assembly
v The secretariat.
2 x 1 = 2mks
15. State one aim of the Arusha declaration in Tanzania. (1mk)
v To encourage self-reliance
v Promote communalism
v Nationalization of key sectors of the economy

1 x 1 = 1mk
16. Identify two conditions one must fulfill to be elected president in India. (2mks)
v Must be a citizen of India
v One must be 35 years and above
v Must be qualified for elections as a member of the house of people.
v Should not hold any office of profit under the government of India.
2 x 1 = 2mks

17. Name one major political party in Britain. (1mk)
v Labour party
v Conservative party.

1 x 1 = 1mk

18. (a) State three inventions that promoted Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (3mks)
v Discovery of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium/issue of fertilizers.
v Invention of selective breeding by Robert Bakewell
v Invention of the mechanical thresher and reaper by Patrick Bell
v Invention of the seed drill by Jethro Tull
v Development of canning process
v Invention of the refrigerator.
3 x 1 = 3mks

(b) Explain the effects of Agrarian Revolution in U.S.A. (12mks)
v There was diversification of agriculture through the introduction of new farm animals and crops.
v More land was brought into cultivation as a result of new inventions on farm machinery
v There was increased food production due to use of new methods of farming e.g. use of fertilizers and hybrid seeds.
v Led to expansion of agricultural related industries as a result of better farming methods.
v Rural-urban migration since mechanization of agriculture replaced slaves and other laborers therefore people moved to the urban areas to search for employment
v Intensification in trade since there was expansion of food production.
v The transport system was greatly improved. Roads and railways and sea transport eased transportation.
v There was increase in population in the U.S.A. due to availability of food.
v It led to enhancement of research and scientific inventions especially in the area of agriculture.
6 x 2 = 12mks

19. (a) Give three characteristics of Regional trade during 18th Century. (3mks)
v It involved middlemen
v It covered long distance.
v Involved people who are mainly specialized in trade
v It involved large volume of commodities and many people.
v It had no set market day, goods were sold on arrival.
3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) What are the factors that led to the decline of trans-Saharan trade? (12mks)

v Gold in West Africa became exhausted.
v Tuaregs stopped being guides and started robbing their traders. They also neglected the oases they previously well maintained.
v Political instability. The collapse of empires created anarchy and insecurity therefore disrupting the trading activities e.g. Mali and Songhai.
v Portuguese and Spaniards attacked and captured Morrocco causing the decline in the area.
v The Ottoman Empire attacked and occupied Egypt and Tripoli creating further anarchy and insecurity.
v The development of the Trans-Atlantic trade gave it competition and led to its decline.
v The anti-slave trade crusade waged by the British philanthropist and subsequent abolition of trade led to the demise of the Tran Saharan trade.
v Colonization of African continent by European powers since the African commercial activities were marginalized.
v European powers since the African commercial activities were marginalized.
v European penetration of the interior region impacted negatively on importance of middlemen.
v Establishment of commercial ports on the West African coast and use of navigable rivers rendered caravan trade unpopular as it was slow.
6 x 2 = 12mks

20. (a) Identify three factors that led to the decline of Meroe as an early urban centre. (3mks)
v Loss of trees affected the iron smelting industry as there was shortage of wood to smelt iron.
v Decline and collapse of agriculture due to deforestation and increase in desertification.
v Rise of the kingdom of Axum to the East of Meroe. This denied Meroe access to the read sea.
v Deterioration of trade due to rivalry and competition form Axum kingdom.
v Conquest of Meroe by King Ezana of the kingdom of Axum in 350 AD
3 x 1 = 3mks

(b) Discuss five factors that led to the development of early urban centres in Africa. (12mks)
v Availability of water for instance Cairo and River Nile. The places where water was available attracted settlement.
v Development of agriculture. Availability of food encouraged people to establish permanent settlement.
v Trading activities led to rise of centres which eventually developed into towns.
v Existence of trade routes which connected various people.
v Administrative and royal centres developed into towns e.g. Kumasi
v Security places that were secure attracted population concentration and town growth.
v Religion some towns grew as religions centres.
v Centres of learning some developed as learning centres e.g. Alexandria and Timbuktu.
6 x 2 = 12mks

21. (a) Give five terms of the coryndom treaty of 1900 between Lewanika of Lozi and the British.
(15mks)
v The British government was responsible for administration in Balozi
v The company to appoint officials and pay for the administration.
v The company to provide schools, industries, transport, postal and telegraphic facilities.
v Lewanika would only receive 850 sterling pounds and a year as his stipend.
v Traditional Lozi rights over game, iron working and tree cutting for canoe building were guaranteed.
v The company were allowed to acquire land in Batakoe plateau
v The company maintained its rights to prospect minerals in Balozi.
v Lewanika was to stop slavery and witchcraft in his area.
v Lewanika was made chief of Barotse.
5 x 1 = 5mks

(b) What were the results of collaboration between Lewanika of Lozi and the British in the 19th century? (10mks)

v The Lozi lost their independence and were colonized by the British.
v Lewanika managed to maintain his position as chief. He became paramount chief although under the British.
v Traditional practices such as slavery and witchcraft were abolished.
v The Lozi lost most of their land to the British.
v The British administrators used the Lozi to extend their control over other areas in northern Rhodesia.
v The Lozi royal class was reduced to mere tax collectors on behalf of the British.
v The Lozi people were given key positions in administration in the government.
v Lewanika’s son and his people received western education.
v Lewanika lost control over his vassal states. The chiefs in this state could not pay tribute to him since they were the British.
5 x 2 = 10mks

22. (a) What made the Pan-African Congress of 1945 in Manchester unique? (3mks)
v It was mainly organized by African from Africa with exception of Dubois and Padmore.
v Representatives of white philanthropist were absent.
v African trade unions were represented.
v It addressed itself to problems facing Africa.
v It was more local and radical which demanded independence of Africans
v It condemned capitalism
v It expressed hope that Asia and Africa would break the chain of colonialism.
3 x 1 = 3mks

(b) Explain five achievements of the Pan-African Movement. (12mks)
v It was a fore runner of OAU which took charge of Africa affairs.
v It created a sense of togetherness among people of African origin.
v It helped to promote nationalism and attainment of independence among African states.
v The movement laid the foundation for the interest in research on Africa culture and history.
v Africans have become more committed to Africa issues e.g. fighting apartheid regime.
v It provided a forum for African people to discuss their common problems with one voice.
v It was a step towards the restoration of the status and dignity of African people
v It encouraged co-operation among African leaders and states towards decolonization.

23. (a) Identify the weapons that were used during the cold war. (3mks)
v Propaganda
v Economic sanctions
v Military and financial aid to the enemies of the opposite side.
v Military support to the allies of the enemy.
v General policy of non co-operation.
3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) Explain six factors that led to the easing of the cold war. (12mks)

v The death of stalin who was a hardliner and could not negotiate with the Americans. Krushcher assumed presidency and he favoured the policy of peaceful co-existence.
v Series of negotiations between U.S.A. and the USSR leading to signing of strategic arms limitations agreements leading to disarmaments.
v Accession of Gorbachev who adopted a liberal policy. He initiated reforms based on openness and economic restructuring.
v Collapse of communism and the establishment of western democracies in former Soviet controlled areas in Eastern Europe e.g. in East Germany Poland.
v Reagan’s policy. He was more flexible and open minded than his predecessors thus diffusing tension during the cold war.
v Unification of Germany. The crumbling of the Berlin wall in 199- eased the conflict between the East and West. The collapse of the Berlin wall reunited Germany under chancellor Helmut Kohl.
v Russia’s support for the Gulf war. This was proof that the Soviet Union was willing to co-operate with Western capitalists.
v Dissolution of Warsaw pack. The cancellation of the pack was a step forward towards the end of the cold war.
6 x 2 = 12mks

24. (a) Outline the main features of the U.S.A. constitution. (3mks)

v It is a written one.
v It is interpreted by supreme court
v Provides for a bicameral legislature.
v It is the supreme law of the land.
v It contains the bill of rights
v It spelt out the process of constitutional amendment.
v It provides for separation of powers between the executive legislature and judiciary.

3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) Explain six functions of the federal government of the U.S.A. (10mks)

v Levying and collecting taxes.
v Paying government debts
v Providing common defence and looking into the general welfare in the United States.
v Declaring war, raising and supporting the armed forces.
v Regulating commerce with foreign nations and the federal states in the U.S.A.
v Making and regulating the value of U.S.A. currency.
v Handling foreign affairs.
v Resolving disputes involving different states.
v Admitting new states into the union.
v Enacting and passing federal laws.
v Establishing federal courts.
6 x 2 = 12mks

 

8 responses to “HIS140614-2MS

  1. antony hoodler

    August 26, 2014 at 7:11 am

    Histroy

     
  2. lucy

    June 19, 2015 at 7:25 am

    goodwork

     
  3. Kemo Jack

    August 5, 2015 at 7:49 pm

    you have done gnod work which is really beneficial

     
    • revpalace

      September 2, 2015 at 1:24 pm

      Come again!

       
      • kabura

        February 23, 2016 at 3:20 pm

        wagwan homie thanks man🙂

         
  4. Brian

    September 24, 2015 at 7:49 am

    hw can i download the exams?

     
  5. kabura

    February 23, 2016 at 3:21 pm

    hey guys

     

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